Characteristics of unpaved roads in the late 18th century – early 19th century, and the design of the first wooden trackway as a forerunner to the Bukovyna railways

Keywords: Austrian Empire, transport, construction of railways, periodization, ways of communication of Bukovina

Abstract

In the history of Bukovinian social life in the 1840–1850s, an important role is played by the fierce struggle for the introduction of rail transport. This struggle took place in the deepening crisis of the feudal system and the development of capitalism in the Austrian Empire. Primitive medieval methods of transporting goods and passengers by waterways and unpaved roads, which for centuries met the needs of feudal Bukovyna, became a brake on the economic, social and political progress of the Bukovyna region. The beginning of the transport revolution in England had a huge public response in Austria-Hungary. The rapidly developing relationship between scientists and engineers from Austria, Western Europe and America in this period made a large contribution to the process, as the newest means of transportation were spreading in the early 19th century, first of all, in the industrialized regions of Europe. These regions had enough funds for the construction of roads because they could develop different methods of production. Today we are mostly interested in the projects of construction of typical means of transportation on agricultural lands with practically no industry. In the early 19th century, Bukovyna was one of them. The purpose of this article is to thoroughly analyze unpaved roads of the late 18th – early 19th century, as well as the project of the first wooden trackway as the forerunner of the Bukovyna railways. To achieve this purpose, the authors first reviewed how railways were constructed in the Austrian Empire during 1830s – 1850s. Then, in contrast with the first railway networks that emerged and developed in the Austrian Empire, the authors made an analysis of the condition and characteristics of unpaved roads in Bukovyna. The government's attention to Bukovyna's roads was explained by their military, economic and political significance for the Austrian Empire by the end of the 18th – early 19th century. There was a number of state trackways built on the territory of Bukovyna which crossed the region and ensured the military interconnection of two Austrian provinces named – Galicia and Transylvania, as well as approached the borders of the Russian Empire and the Danube principalities. At the same time, they helped to restore the suspended trade flow in Bukovyna. In addition, the authors considered the first attempt to create a wooden trackway as a prototype and predecessor of the Bukovyna railway. It is evident that such an idea played a significant role in shaping the development strategy of the region in the minds of Austrian and Bukovinian officials, and became a forerunner for main and regional railways in Bukovyna.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Botushanskyi, V. M. (2000). Silske hospodarstvo Bukovyny (druha polovyna XIX – pochatok XX st.) [Agriculture of Bukovina (second half of the XIX – beginning of the XX century)]. Chernivtsi: Zoloti lytavry [in Ukrainian].

Georgievskiy, P. I. (1893). Istoricheskiy ocherk razvitiya putey soobscheniya v ХІХ veke [Historical sketch of the development of communication lines in the 19th century]. St. Petersburg: printing house Yu. N. Ehrlich [in Russian].

Hudeczek, K. (1918). Osterreichische Handelpolitik im Vormarz 1815–1848. Wien: Konegen [in German].

Kaindl, R. F. (1894a). Die Erwerbung der Bukowina durch Osterreich. Czernowitz: H. Pardini [in German].

Kaindl, R. F. (1894b). Die Huzulen. Ihr Leben, ihre Sitten und ihre Volksüberlieferung. Wien: Alfred Hölder [in German].

Kaindl, R. F. (1898). Geschichte der Bukowina. 3. abschnitt. Die Bukowina unter der herrschaft des österreichischen kaiserhauses (seit 1774) Festschrift zum fünfzigjährigen regierungsjubiläum Sr. Majestät Franz Josef I. Czernowitz: H. Pardini [in German].

Kovalchak, H. I. (1988). Ekonomichnyi rozvytok zakhidnoukrainskykh zemel [Economic development of western Ukrainian lands]. Kyiv: Naukova dumka [in Ukrainian].

Krushevan, P. A. (Ed.). (1903). Bessarabiya. Geograficheskiy, istoricheskiy, statisticheskiy, ekonomicheskiy, etnograficheskiy, literaturnyiy i spravochnyiy sbornik [Bessarabia. Geographic, historical, statistical, economic, ethnographic, literary and reference collection]. Мoscow: printing house A. V. Vasilyeva [in Russian].

Polek, J. (1900). Die Vereinigung der Bukowina mit Galizien in Jahre 1786. Jahrbuch des Bukowiner Landesmuseums, 8, 49–114 [in German].

Praschinger, H. (1989). Die osterreichischen Eisenbahn als wir tschaftlicher Faktor. Verkehrwegs und Eisenbahnen. Die österreichischen Eisenbahnen als wirtschaftlicher Faktor. In K. Gutkas, E. Bruckmüller (Eds.), Verkehrswege der Eisenbahnen. Beiträge zur Verkehrsgeschichte Österreichs aus Anlaß des Jubiläums „150 Jahre Dampfeisenbahn in Österreich“ (pp. 100–123). Wien: Österreichischer Bundesverlag [in German].

Promyishlennost i tehnika: Entsiklopediya promyishlennyih znaniy: T. 9. Puti soobscheniya [Industry and technology: an encyclopedia of industrial knowledge: V. 9. Communication lines], (w.y.). St. Petersburg: Prosveschenie [in Russian].

Strelko, O., Berdnychenko, Y., & Pylypchuk, O. (2021). Creation and operation of main railways in bukovina. Plural.History.Culture.Society, 9(1), 26–47. https://doi.org/10.37710/PLURAL.V9I1S_3

Tsehanovetskiy, G. (1869). Zheleznyie dorogi i gosudarstvo. Opyit issledovaniya o vazhneyshih predmetah ekonomiki i politiki zheleznyih dorog [Railways and the state. Research experience on the most important subjects of railways economics and policy]. Кyiv: printing house of the Kyiv provincial government [in Russian].

Verhovskiy, S. V. (1892). Kratkiy istoricheskiy ocherk nachala i rasprostraneniya dorog v Rossii po 1887 g. vklyuchit [A brief historical outline of the beginning and the spread of roads in Russia up to 1887 inclusive]. St. Petersburg: printing house of the Ministry of Railways [in Russian].

Voronin, M. M. (1974). Pervyie nauchnyie kontaktyi russkih, zapadnoevropeyskih i amerikanskih uchenyih v oblasti transportnoy nauki i tehniki (1800–1850 hh.) [The first scientific contacts of Russian, Western European and American scientists in the field of transport science and technology (1800–1850)]. XIII Mezhdunarodnyiy kongress po istorii nauki. Sektsiya HI. Istoriya tehniki – ХІІІ International Congress on the History of Science. Section XI. History of technology. (pp. 178–181). Moscow: Nauka [in Russian].

Wandruszka, A., & Urbanitsch, P. (1973). Die Habsburgermonarchie 1848–1918. Bd. 1. Die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung,. Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften [in German].

Zhaloba, I. V. (1991). Derzhavni (kazenni) shliakhy Bukovyny kintsia XVIII – pochatku XIX st. [State (state) roads of Bukovina in the late eighteenth – early twentieth century]. Mizhnarodna naukova konferentsiia “70 rokiv Khotynskoi viiny” – International Scientific Conference “70 Years of the Khotyn War” (pp. 46–48). Chernivtsi: Yuri Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University [in Ukrainian].

Zhaloba, I. V. (1995). Rozvytok zaliznyts Avstriiskoi imperii vid pochatku budivnytstva do 1854 r. [The development of the railways of the Austrian Empire from the beginning of construction to 1854]. Pytannia istorii novoho ta novitnoho chasu – Questions of the history of modern and contemporary times, 4, 46–56 [in Ukrainian].

Zhaloba, I. V. (1999). Pershyi proekt koliinoi dorohy na Bukovyni [The first project of a railway in Bukovyna]. Pytannia istorii Ukrainy – Questions of Ukrainian history, 253–261 [in Ukrainian].

Zhaloba, I. V., & Yatsentyuk, F. S. (1997). Shlyahy spoluchennya Bukovini (kInets ХVIII – persha polovina ХІХ st.) [Ways of communicating of Bukovina (end of the 18th – first half of the 19th century)]. Anallele Bukovinei. An IV. 3. 727–738 [in Ukrainian].


Abstract views: 319
PDF Downloads: 91
Published
2021-12-12
How to Cite
Strelko, O., & Pylypchuk, O. (2021). Characteristics of unpaved roads in the late 18th century – early 19th century, and the design of the first wooden trackway as a forerunner to the Bukovyna railways. History of Science and Technology, 11(2), 437-452. https://doi.org/10.32703/2415-7422-2021-11-2-437-452

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>