Academician Pavlova Mariia Vasylivna (1854–1938): life and scientific work
The article is devoted to the study of dedicated contribution of academician Mariia Vasylivna Pavlova (Gortynskaya) in the development of Paleozoology Science. It is noted that her research was carried out in several directions including studying the causes of extinction of animals in the past geological epochs, investigating the remains of fossil elephants, rhinos, tapirs, notartiodactyls and artiodactyls, describing the remains of mammals in Tiraspol gravel. M. V. Pavlova described hipparions and horses, found mainly in the southern regions of Ukraine and the Crimea. By this new material she proved that horses had originated from American protogippus. The idea of a single trunk development of horses both the Old and New World caused objections, especially in America, as in Europe, there were no finds of ancient forms of horse series – anchitheriinae and protogippus. M. V. Pavlova consistently sought them in Eurasia, and in 1903 she discovered the remains of the bones of the limbs of these ancient horses. Analysis of the scientific heritage of Academician M. V. Pavlova, an outstanding national paleoscientist, a specialist in evolutionary theory, an organizer of Paleozoology science and a teacher, makes it possible to understand the processes of development of national biological science. She takes one of the places of honor in the world of paleontological science. Her name is associated with the development of Paleozoology science of late XIX – the first third of the twentieth century and the scientific outlook on the development of various Paleozoology concepts, laws and ideas. It suggests the urgency and necessity of this research. Its relevance is also caused by significant civil and scientific value of a person M. V. Pavlova in Paleozoology science, the lack of special comprehensive study of her life, scientific, organizational and administrative activities in the history of science, the need to create the most objective biography of M. V. Pavlova, the analysis of creative works and the importance of the introduction of solid scientific use of new sources and facts. Scientific activities of Pavlova as the scientific leader and founder of scientific school and her contribution in Paleozoology science has been marginally disclosed yet.
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