http://www.hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/issue/feed History of science and technology 2020-11-05T13:36:20+02:00 Oleh Strelko (Олег Григорьевич Стрелко) info@hst-journal.com Open Journal Systems <p><span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><strong><span id="result_box" class="" style="line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="line-height: 20px !important;">Journal "History of science and technology"<br></span></span></strong></span></p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><strong><span class="" style="line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="line-height: 20px !important;">Title abbreviation:&nbsp;</span></span></strong><span class="" style="line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="line-height: 20px !important;"><span id="result_box" class="" style="line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><em>Hist. sci. technol.</em> <strong>or</strong> <em>HST</em></span></span></span> </span></p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><span id="result_box" class="" style="line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="line-height: 20px !important;"><a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/issn/2415-7430" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ISSN 2415-7430 (Online)</a>, <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/issn/2415-7422" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ISSN 2415-7422 (Print)</a></span></span></span></p> <p style="font-size: 11.2px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><span class="" style="line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="line-height: 20px !important;">Published from the year 2011.</span></span></span></p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><span class="" style="line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="line-height: 20px !important;"><strong>Founder: </strong><span class="" style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><a title="State University of Infrastructure and Technologies" href="https://duit.edu.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">State University of Infrastructure and Technologies</a></span></span> (Ukraine).<br></span></span></span></p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><span class="" style="line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="line-height: 20px !important;"><strong>Publisher:</strong> <span class="" style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><a title="State University of Infrastructure and Technologies" href="https://duit.edu.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">State University of Infrastructure and Technologies</a></span></span> (Ukraine).<br></span></span></span></p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><strong>Editor-in-chief: </strong><a title="Pylypchuk O. Ya." href="http://www.hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/Page_Editor_in_Chief" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Pylypchuk Oleh</a>, Doctor of Science, Professor, <span class="" style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><a title="State University of Infrastructure and Technologies" href="https://duit.edu.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">State University of Infrastructure and Technologies</a></span></span> (Ukraine).&nbsp;</p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><strong>Editorial Board:</strong></p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><a title="Pylypchuk O. Ya." href="http://www.hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/Page_Editor_in_Chief" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Pylypchuk Oleh</a>, <span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">Doctor of Science</span></span>, Professor (Editor-in-chief), <span class="" style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><a title="State University of Infrastructure and Technologies" href="https://duit.edu.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">State University of Infrastructure and Technologies</a></span></span> (Ukraine);</p> <p><a href="https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3173-3373" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Strelko Oleh</a>, Doctor of Science, Professor (Deputy Editor-in-chief), <span class="" style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><a title="State University of Infrastructure and Technologies" href="https://duit.edu.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">State University of Infrastructure and Technologies</a></span></span> (Ukraine);</p> <p><a title="Berdnychenko Yuliia" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7536-7155" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Berdnychenko Yuliia</a>, PhD,&nbsp; <span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">Associate Professor</span></span>, (Deputy Editor-in-chief), <span class="" style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><a title="State University of Infrastructure and Technologies" href="https://duit.edu.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">State University of Infrastructure and Technologies</a></span></span> (Ukraine);</p> <p><a title="Pylypchuk Oksana" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4738-7201" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Pylypchuk Oksana</a>, PhD, <span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">Associate Professor</span></span> (Executive Secretary), <span class="" style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><a title="State University of Infrastructure and Technologies" href="https://duit.edu.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">State University of Infrastructure and Technologies</a></span></span> (Ukraine);</p> <p><a title="Baichun Zhang" href="https://www.scopus.com/authid/detail.uri?authorId=56593822100" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="line-height: 150%;"><span style="line-height: 150%; font-family: Arial;"><span style="line-height: 150%;" lang="EN-US">Baichun Zhang</span></span></span></a>, PhD, Professor, <a title="Institute for the History of Natural Science Chinese Academy of Sciences" href="http://www.ihns.ac.cn/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span class="st">Institute for the History of Natural Science Chinese Academy of Sciences </span></a>&nbsp;(China);</p> <p><a title="Chrzan Krystian Leonard" href="https://www.scopus.com/authid/detail.uri?authorId=6602515990" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Chrzan Krystian Leonard</a>, Doctor of Science, Associate Professor, <a title="Wroclaw University of Science and Technology" href="http://www.pwr.edu.pl" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Wroclaw University of Science and Technology</a> (Poland);</p> <p><a title="Cozzoli Daniele" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6749-8841" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Cozzoli Daniele</a>, Doctor of Science, Associate Professor, <a title="Pompeu Fabra University" href="https://www.upf.edu" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Pompeu Fabra University</a>&nbsp; (Spain);</p> <p><a title="Deforzh Hanna" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1114-3205" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Deforzh Hanna</a>, Doctor of Science, Professor, <span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><span class="" style="line-height: 15.36px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="line-height: 15.36px !important;"><span id="result_box" class="" lang="ru"><span title="Пилипчук О.Я., доктор біологічних наук, професор (головний редактор); "><span class=""><a title="Центральноукраинский государственный педагогический университет имени Владимира Винниченко" href="https://www.cuspu.edu.ua" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 15.36px !important;" lang="en-US">Volodymyr Vynnychenko Central Ukrainian State Pedagogical University</span> </a></span></span></span></span></span></span>(Ukraine);</p> <p><a title="Dovhaniuk Stepan" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1320-3192" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Dovhaniuk Stepan</a>, Doctor of Science, Professor, <a title="V. Lazaryan Dnipro National University of Railway Transport" href="V.%20Lazaryan Dnipro National University of Railway Transport" target="_blank" rel="noopener">V. Lazaryan Dnipro National University of Railway Transport</a> (Ukraine);</p> <p><span class="st"><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title=""><a title="Dvornichenko Andrey" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4813-7340" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Dvornichenko Andrey</a>, Doctor of Science, Professor, <a title="Saint Petersburg State University" href="https://spbu.ru/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Saint Petersburg State University </a></span></span></span><span class="st"><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">(Russian Federation);</span></span></span></p> <p><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title=""><a title="Fando Roman" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2180-4393" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Fando Roman</a>, PhD, Senior Researcher, </span><span class="" title=""><a title="S.I.Vavilov Institute for the History of Science and Technology of the Russian Academy of Sciences" href="http://ihst.ru" target="_blank" rel="noopener">S.I. Vavilov Institute for the History of Science and Technology of the Russian Academy of Sciences</a> <span class="st">(Russian Federation);</span><br></span></span></p> <p><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title=""><a title="Gutnyk Maryna" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2723-2755" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Gutnyk Maryna</a>, PhD, Associate Professor, <a title="The National Technical University &quot;Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute&quot;" href="http://kpi.kharkov.ua" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The National Technical University "Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute"</a> (Ukraine);<br></span></span></p> <p><a title="Hamaliia Vira" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0433-453X" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Hamaliia Vira</a>, Doctor of Science, Senior Researcher, <span class="" style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><a title="State University of Infrastructure and Technologies" href="https://duit.edu.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">State University of Infrastructure and Technologies</a></span></span> (Ukraine);</p> <p><a title="Horban Anatolii" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3396-0898" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Horban Anatolii</a>, PhD, Associate Professor, <span class="" style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><a title="State University of Infrastructure and Technologies" href="https://duit.edu.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">State University of Infrastructure and Technologies</a></span></span> (Ukraine);</p> <p><a title="Hurinchuk Svitlana" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3538-2171" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Hurinchuk Svitlana</a>, PhD, Associate Professor, <span class="" style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><a title="State University of Infrastructure and Technologies" href="https://duit.edu.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">State University of Infrastructure and Technologies</a></span></span> (Ukraine);</p> <p><a title="Isaienko Svitlana" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1705-8527" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Isaienko Svitlana</a>, PhD, Associate Professor, <span class="" style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><a title="State University of Infrastructure and Technologies" href="https://duit.edu.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">State University of Infrastructure and Technologies</a></span></span> (Ukraine);</p> <p><a title="Kamal Mohammad Arif" href="https://www.scopus.com/authid/detail.uri?authorId=56921383300" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Kamal Mohammad Arif</a>, PhD, Associate Professor, <a title="Aligarh Muslim University" href="https://www.amu.ac.in/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Aligarh Muslim University</a>&nbsp; (India);</p> <p><a title="Kasianov Georgiy" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1996-0362" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Kasianov Georgiy</a>, Doctor of Science, Professor, <a title="Institute of History of Ukraine, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine" href="http://resource.history.org.ua/cgi-bin/eiu/history.exe?&amp;I21DBN=HIST&amp;P21DBN=HIST&amp;S21STN=1&amp;S21REF=10&amp;S21FMT=hist_all&amp;C21COM=S&amp;S21CNR=20&amp;S21P01=0&amp;S21P02=0&amp;S21P03=HIS=&amp;S21STR=198" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span class="st">Institute of History of Ukraine</span>, <span class="st">National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine </span></a><span class="st">(Ukraine);</span></p> <p><span class="st"><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title=""><a title="Khaminov Dmitry" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9992-0856" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Khaminov Dmitry</a>, <span class="" style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><span class="" style="line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="line-height: 20px !important;"><span class="" lang="ru"><span title="Коробченко А.А., доктор історичних наук, професор; ">Doctor of Science, Professor, </span></span></span></span></span></span></span> <a title="National Research Tomsk State University" href="http://www.tsu.ru/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">National Research Tomsk State University</a>, (Russian Federation);</span></span></span></p> <p><span class="" style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><span class="" style="line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="line-height: 20px !important;"><span class="" lang="ru"><span title="Коробченко А.А., доктор історичних наук, професор; "><span class="st"><a title="Krichevsky Sergey" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1094-7770" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Krichevsky Sergey</a>,&nbsp;Doctor of Science, Professor, <span title="Гамалія В.М., доктор історичних наук, с.н.с.; "><span title="Пилипчук О.Я., доктор біологічних наук, професор (головний редактор); "><span title="Бєсов Л.М., доктор історичних наук, професор; "><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="uk"><span class="" title=""><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><a title="S.I.Vavilov Institute for the History of Science and Technology of the Russian Academy of Sciences" href="http://ihst.ru" target="_blank" rel="noopener">S.I. Vavilov Institute for the History of Science and Technology of the Russian Academy of Sciences</a> (Russian Federation);<br></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title=""><a title="Lotysz Slawomir" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4426-6401" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Lotysz Slawomir</a>, Doctor of Science, Professor, <a title="Institute of History of Science of the Polish Academy of Sciences" href="http://www.ihnpan.waw.pl/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Institute of History of Science of the Polish Academy of Sciences</a> (Poland);</span></span></p> <p><a title="Massimo Moraglio" href="http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2959-4207" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Moraglio </a><a title="Massimo Moraglio" href="http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2959-4207" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Massimo</a>, PhD, Senior Research, <a title="Technical University Berlin" href="https://www.tu-berlin.de" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Technical University Berlin</a>&nbsp; (<span class="st">Germany</span>);</p> <p><a title="Müürsepp Peeter" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5515-4918" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Müürsepp Peeter</a>, PhD, Associate Professor, <a title="Tallinn University of Technology" href="https://www.ttu.ee" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Tallinn University of Technology</a> (Estonia);</p> <p><a title="Nursultanova Lazat" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9641-0797" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Nursultanova Lazat</a>, Doctor of Science, Professor, <a title="L. N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University " href="http://enu.kz/en/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">L. N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University</a> (Kazakhstan);</p> <p><a title="Rentetzi Maria" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1940-8116" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Rentetzi Maria</a>,&nbsp; <span class="st"><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">PhD</span></span></span>, Professor, <a title="Technical University Berlin" href="https://www.tu-berlin.de" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Technical University Berlin</a>&nbsp; (<span class="st">Germany</span>);</p> <p><a title="Ryzhov Sergii" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3229-1020" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Ryzhov Sergii</a>, <span class="st"><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">PhD</span></span></span>, Associate Professor, <a title="Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv" href="http://www.univ.kiev.ua" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv</a> (Ukraine);</p> <p><a title="Salata Halyna" href="http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2673-8463" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Salata Halyna</a>, Doctor of Science, Associate Professor, <a title="Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts" href="http://knukim.edu.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts</a> (Ukraine);</p> <p><a title="Saktaganova Zauresh" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8678-3629" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Saktaganova Zauresh</a>, Doctor of Sciences, Professor, <a title="E.A. Buketova Karaganda State University" href="https://ksu.kz/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span title="">E.A.</span> Buketova Karaganda State University </a><span class="" title="">(Kazakhstan);</span></p> <p><a title="Slabin Uladzimir" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9156-8598" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Slabin Uladzimir</a>, <span class="st"><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">PhD</span></span></span>, Research Associate, <a title="University of Oregon" href="https://www.uoregon.edu/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University of Oregon</a> (USA);</p> <p><a title="Sorochynska Olena" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2477-1275" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Sorochynska Olena</a>, <span class="st"><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">PhD</span></span></span>, Associate Professor, <span class="" style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><a title="State University of Infrastructure and Technologies" href="https://duit.edu.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">State University of Infrastructure and Technologies</a></span></span> (Ukraine);</p> <p><span class="" style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><span class="" style="line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="line-height: 20px !important;"><span class="" lang="ru"><span title="Скляр В.М., доктор історичних наук, професор; "><a title="Stepanchuk Vadim" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5476-2284" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Stepanchuk Vadim</a>, <span title="Сухотеріна Л.І., доктор історичних наук, професор; "><span title="Пилипчук О.Я., доктор біологічних наук, професор (головний редактор); ">Doctor of Science, <span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">Senior Research,</span></span> </span></span><a title="Institute of Archaeology of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine" href="http://www.iananu.org.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Institute of Archaeology of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine</a> (Ukraine);</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><a title="Vargas Dominguez Joel" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4092-5337" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Vargas Dominguez Joel</a>, <span class="st"><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">PhD</span></span></span>, Postdoc researcher, <a title="National Autonomous University of Mexico" href="https://www.unam.mx/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">National Autonomous University of Mexico</a> (Mexico);</p> <p><a title="Videiko Mykhailo" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8708-0749" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">Videiko</span></span> Mykhailo</a>, Doctor of Science, Professor,<span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title=""> <a title="Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University" href="http://kubg.edu.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University</a> (Ukraine);</span></span></p> <p><a title="White Charles" href="https://www.arbor.edu/faculty/charles-white/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">White Charles</a>, <span class="st"><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">PhD</span></span></span>, Professor, <a title="Spring Arbor University" href="https://www.arbor.edu" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Spring Arbor University</a> (USA)</p> <p><a title="Wolfschmidt Gudrun" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3110-9642" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Wolfschmidt Gudrun</a>, Doctor of Science, Professor, <a title="University of Hamburg" href="https://www.hs.uni-hamburg.de" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University of Hamburg</a> (<span class="">Germany</span>).</p> <p><span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><span id="result_box" class="" lang="en"><span class="">The journal "History of Science and Technology" is the coverage of topical issues of the history of science and technology, historiography, source study, special historical disciplines, theory and methodology of historical science, history of natural science, history of archeology.</span></span></span></p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><span id="result_box" class="" lang="en"><span class="">The journal </span></span></span> "History of science and technology" is addressed to scientists, specialists and everybody interested in key issues on history of science and technology.</p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;">Editorial board does not always share the author’s views displayed in the papers and each author takes personal responsibility for the accuracy, credibility and authenticity of research results described in their manuscripts.</p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><span id="result_box" class="" lang="en"><span class="">The journal </span></span></span> is published twice a year in Ukrainian, Russian and English (<span class="aCOpRe">British English and American English)</span>.</p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;">The journal&nbsp;<strong>History of science and technology</strong> uses software <strong><a title="Unicheck " href="https://unicheck.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Unicheck</a></strong> to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts.</p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><strong>Open-access Statement:</strong> <span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><span id="result_box" class="" lang="en"><span class="">The journal </span></span></span><span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><strong><span id="result_box" class="" style="line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="line-height: 20px !important;">"History of science and technology" </span></span></strong></span>provides immediate <strong><a style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" title="open access" href="http://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/open-access" target="_blank" rel="noopener">open access</a> </strong>to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. Full-text access to scientific articles of the journal is presented on the official website in the&nbsp;<strong><a style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" href="http://www.hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/issue/archive" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Archives</a>&nbsp;</strong>section.</p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><strong>License terms:</strong> authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a &nbsp;<span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><strong><a style="line-height: 20px !important;" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution License International CC-BY</a></strong></span>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.&nbsp;</p> <p>All marked answers the rules of the Committee on ethics in 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line-height: 20px !important;">This journal utilizes the LOCKSS system to create a distributed archiving system among participating libraries and permits those libraries to create permanent archives of the journal for purposes of preservation and restoration.&nbsp;<span style="font-size: 12.8px;"><strong><a style="line-height: 20px !important;" href="http://www.lockss.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">More...</a></strong></span></p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><strong>State registration certificate: <span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><span id="result_box" class="" style="line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="line-height: 20px !important;" title="Свідоцтво про державну реєстрацію друкованого засобу масової інформації: серія КВ №23041-12881 ПР від 28.12.2017 р."><a href="/public/site/certificate.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener">КВ №236876-13716 ПР on 23.04.2019</a></span></span></span>.</strong></p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><strong>Mailing address:</strong> 9, Kyrylivska St., Kyiv, Ukraine, 04071</p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><span id="result_box" class="short_text" lang="en"><span class=""><strong>Phone:</strong> 044-409-24-41</span></span></span></p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><span class="short_text" lang="en"><span class=""><strong>e-mail</strong> <a href="mailto:info@hst-journal.com" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>info@hst-journal.com</strong></a></span></span></span></p> http://www.hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/394 PREFACE 2020-11-05T13:29:02+02:00 Oleh Pylypchuk info@hst-journal.com Oleh Strelko info@hst-journal.com Yulia Berdnychenko info@hst-journal.com <p>This issue of the journal “History of Science and Technology” has been prepared in difficult conditions.</p> <p>In difficult conditions for authors…</p> <p>In difficult conditions for reviewers ...</p> <p>In difficult conditions for the editorial board…</p> <p>In difficult conditions for the whole world in general!!!</p> <p>This issue contains ten articles. The first of these articles came in late 2019, when the world did not know yet these terrible words: Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19); severe acute respiratory syndrome Corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)… COVID-19 was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and has since spread worldwide, resulting in an ongoing pandemic.</p> <p>As on May 29, 2020, when these lines were written, more than 5&nbsp;800&nbsp;000 cases were recorded in 188 countries, killing more than 359&nbsp;000 people.</p> <p>We hope that humanity will invent a vaccine as soon as possible, and these horrific death statistics will first stop growing and then stop altogether. For this, many events and activities are important, as history shows. Including the history of the development of science and technology, that is the subject area of our publication.</p> <p>In many sources on the history of electric power production the evolution of electric power production was studied both in developed and developing countries and its impact on economy.</p> <p>The growing demand for electric power became the most problem that stood before the power sector of Ghana. This issue begins with an article examining activities that in many ways helped to create a sustainable electricity supply for households and industries in Ghana, especially in the cities of Accra and Kumasi, between 1900 and 1960.</p> <p>Scientific-technical borrowings are one of those types of scientific support for the work of industrial sectors, whose role in the conditions of exiting the crisis to acquiring the particular importance.</p> <p>Since the mid-1920s, they have become the main way of scientific support for the organization of the development of Ukrainian electric machine-building industry in the context of large-scale electrification of the country. That was due to the need for a quick withdrawal of this industry from the previous crisis in the absence in the Ukrainian SSR of its own scientific support system for the electric machine engineering. An example of this measure, which was considered in the study, was an attempt to achieve the fastest possible increase in productivity of the Kharkiv Electromechanical Plant at minimal financial cost.</p> <p>The next article analyzes the activities of the mining industry in the south of the Russian Empire, of which Ukraine was a part of that time. An analysis of the so-called “coal crisis” and the role of large miners in collusion has been made. Market monopolization has been considered. Emphasis is made on the customs policy of the tsarist government, speculation on temporary fuel difficulties. The study shows that in the last quarter of the nineteenth century there was a consolidation and monopolization of the mining industry in the south of the Russian Empire.</p> <p>In the 21st century, every reputable journal also has an online version, which makes the dissemination of scientific information almost instantaneous. We are so accustomed to the conveniences of the information age that it is difficult for us to imagine the difficulties that scientists faced a little over 150 years ago. The genesis of science launched the process of forming branch of scientific communities and demanded stable ways of communication for productive and effective development of the branch. Scientific journals have become an ideal means of disseminating information, and a scientific article has been transformed from an ordinary letter into a modern form and has taken on an ideal form. The importance of international communication between scientists, on the example of consideration of the activities of Valerian Mykolaiovych Lihin, is discussed in the following study. He became the first Russian-speaking member of one of the oldest Mathematical Societies in Europe - the French. V. Lihin broke the tradition of “isolated” science when discoveries in the Russian Empire (and later in the USSR) were made separately from the rest of the world.</p> <p>In the next article an attempt to investigate in a chronological order the historical circumstances on the formation and development of the mainline electric locomotives engineering at the Luhansk diesel locomotives engineering plant (1957–2014) has been made.</p> <p>Historical and biographical research is continued by the article, which considers the factors shaping the scientific worldview of Mykola Pavlovych Petrov - an outstanding scientist and engineer against the background of his initiative and organizational efforts to develop the domestic scientific and technical space of the late nineteenth - early twentieth</p> <p>The article devoted to highlighting the contribution of academician Mariia Vasylivna Pavlova (Gortynska) in the development of palaeozoology science at the end of the XIX – the first third of the XX centuries continues the cycle of historical and biographical researches.</p> <p>We hope that our readers will be interested in scientific work, examining the research of Russian women in the field of human genetics in 1920-1930. The main task of the article was to determine the contribution of women scientists to the development of different fields of human genetics. Particular attention was given to reconstructing women’s geneticists’ research work, reviewing the content of their publications, and analyzing the theoretical and methodological approaches they employed in solving various scientific problems.</p> <p>In the history of Ukrainian archeology, there are many names of outstanding researchers who have devoted their lives to the study of our antiquity. Among them is Yulian Kulakovskyi, a well-known domestic historian and archeologist. In 1883 Yu. A. Kulakovskyi joined the Nestor Chronicler Historical Society. Since that time, his life and career have been closely linked to this scientific union.</p> <p>The analysis of the results of researches in the field of late antique archeology of the Crimea, published on the pages of “Readings of the Historical Society of Nestor the Chronicler”, is discussed in the next article.</p> <p>The development of the spread of COVID-19 shows that in the fight against it in the first place are such measures and actions as unrestricted access to information on methods of combating the spread of the virus; exchange of data at the international level on treatment methods of the disease; communication between scientists from different countries; timely quarantine measures, etc. In this sense, it is important to study the historical experience of mankind in the fight against pandemics. This issue of the journal History of Science and Technology concludes with an article on a critical analysis of nineteenth-century military interventions as the main cause of the spread of infectious diseases internationally. Emerging problems and solutions obtained as a result of a critical analysis of the materials of the International Sanitary Conferences reveal the history of the spread of infectious diseases and the methods of early statistics used for epidemiological purposes.</p> <p>Concluding this Preface, we emphasize once again the importance of a comprehensive study of international historical experience in the development of science and technology. Not limited to any one field or field of science, we are ready to provide the pages of our journal for the opportunity to exchange views with the international scientific community.</p> <p>Let peace and health be with everyone in these hard times!</p> 2020-06-05T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 History of science and technology http://www.hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/395 An evolutionary study of production of electricity in Ghana (1900–1960s) 2020-11-05T13:29:52+02:00 Samuel Adu-Gyamfi mcgyamfi@yahoo.com Kwasi Amakye-Boateng kwasiamaboat@yahoo.com Dennis Awuah awuahdennis53@yahoo.com Richard Oware richardoware18@gmail.com Stephen Quansah cafuiquansah@gmail.com <p><em>The literature on the history of electricity production have studied the evolution of electricity in both developed and developing countries and its impact on their economies. Some have laid foundations upon which other works are carried out. A close examination of historiography and multidisciplinary research on electricity production in Ghana shows that more efforts are required to improve the electric power landscape in Ghana. From the colonial era, the increasing demand for electricity has been the biggest challenge plaguing the energy sector. Respective governments have made significant strides in ensuring reliable and universal access to electricity throughout Ghana, yet such efforts have been accompanied by different levels of challenges. The study uses a qualitative and exploratory research approach to trace the activities that helped, in many other ways to the creation of a sustainable electric power provision to household and industry in Ghana, particularly in two of Ghana’s cities; Accra and Kumasi, within the period 1900 to the1960s. The work focused mainly on archival sources in its quest to arrive at how indigenous Ghanaians provided power for industrial activities and for household purposes. Results from the study show that local and cottage industries relied predominantly on wood, fuel, and biomass for their operations even before the introduction of the more sophisticated means of power generation. Also, the study revealed that in finding solutions to the challenges of electricity production, policymakers have focused more on current issues with little or no effort to trace the historical foundation of electricity production. This notwithstanding, the little efforts that have been made examined the history of energy production, with a limited focus on the immediate post-independence era </em></p> 2020-06-05T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 History of science and technology http://www.hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/396 Cooperation with AEG in 1925–1928 as the first form of scientific-technical borrowings in the electric machine-building industry of the Ukrainian SSR 2020-11-05T13:30:24+02:00 Ihor Annienkov goalan93@gmail.com <p><em>Scientific-technical borrowings are one of those types of scientific support for the work of industrial sectors, whose role in the conditions of exiting the crisis to acquiring the particular importance. Since the mid-1920s, they have become the main how of scientific support for the organization of the development of Ukrainian electric machine-building industry in the context of large-scale electrification of the country. That was due to the need for a quick withdrawal of this industry from the previous crisis in the absence in the Ukrainian SSR of its own scientific support system for the electric machine engineering. The first form of scientific-technical borrowings for the republican segment of the Soviet Union profile industry was the agreement between the State Electrotechnical Trust and the German electrotechnical company Allgemeine Elektricitäts Gesellschaft on scientific-technical cooperation. The main objective of this act was to achieve at the lowest possible financial cost the fastest possible increase in productivity of the Kharkiv Electromechanical Plant. To do this, it was supposed using the American technologies for the production of electrical machines but implemented them on German technological equipment. Allgemeine Elektricitäts Gesellschaft was the company that already made such it at the beginning of the twentieth century using the technologies of the General Electric Company. Moreover, in the pre-Soviet period, it made an attempt to hold a similar act at the Kharkiv Electromechanical Plant, which it owned in this time; however it ended in failure due to the revolutionary upheavals that began in Ukraine. Thus, the agreement concluded with the German company was a continuation of the same actions, what itself had begun, but, already in new historical realities. That is, the Allgemeine Elektricitäts Gesellschaft actions were copied by the Soviet government, however, adapted to the Soviet way of organizing industrial production. Despite the fundamental difference between the latter and the working conditions of the Allgemeine Elektricitäts Gesellschaft in Germany, the concentration of the parties precisely on the scientific and technical component of the project made it possible to achieve the expected result in full. However, at the same time, Ukrainian electric machine builders focused specifically on the speed of duplication of scientific-technical knowledge missed the opportunity to study the methodology for obtaining them. This became the reason that these scientific-technical borrowings did not become the proper basis for the formation of the scientific component of the scientific-technical potential of the domestic electric machine-building industry.</em></p> 2020-06-05T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 History of science and technology http://www.hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/397 The impact of decisions of Mining Industrialists Congresses on the Industrial Revolution increasing in Ukraine in the late XIX century 2020-11-05T13:30:56+02:00 Maryna Gutnyk marinazoza@gmail.com Serhii Radohuz radohus@gmail.com <p><em>The activity of the mining industry in the South of the Russian Empire, of which Ukraine was part at that time, is analyzed. It is noted that the rapid development of industry in the Russian Empire after the abolition of serfdom in 1861 opened up opportunities for investors to raise capital. Information is given about why Kharkiv became the center of investment life of mine owners, namely its good geographical location. Data on the number of inhabitants of the city and the number of trading institutions are provided. The stages in the formation of the mining industry of the South of the Russian Empire as a driving force for economic development in Ukraine are highlighted.The causes of weak coal sales from the Donbas and the development of the factory industry of Ukraine in the 1860s are analyzed. It is shown how these issues were resolved. In particular, mining congresses were organized to discuss and resolve these issues.It is shown how the decisions of mining congresses influenced the development of the country's economy at the end of the nineteenth century. Examples of issues discussed at these congresses are given. In particular, the congresses discussed – workers, higher and secondary specialized education, mining credit, insurance, the ratio of the mining industry to zemstvos and land taxation of enterprises of the mining industry, taxes, land relations, postal, telegraph and telephone traffic, passenger traffic in the Southern Russia area, duties, ports, marinas, navigable rivers and canals, shipbuilding and merchant shipping, export of mineral fuel abroad, construction of new railways, etc. It should be noted that the central issue discussed at almost all mining congresses was the question of tariffs, and this was not a coincidence, since it directly concerned the markets for industrialists without whom production could not be developed, and with it the intensification of the industrial revolution. Therefore, this problem, in one form or another, has arisen constantly.Information is provided on the number of such congresses, as well as on the creation of a permanent body, the Council of Miners of the South of the Russian Empire. It analyzes the so-called “coal crisis” and the role of major mining companies in the collusion. The monopolization of the market is considered. Emphasis is placed on the customs policy of the tsarist government. Speculation on temporary fuel difficulties is illustrated. It is noted that at the end of the 1890s, there were especially high rates of development of the Donbas coal industry. Special tariffs for the export of Donetsk coal abroad were introduced. Thus, in the last quarter of the 19th century, the mining and monopolization of the mining industry of the south of the Russian Empire were enlarged and monopolized.</em></p> 2020-06-05T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 History of science and technology http://www.hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/398 The role of V. Lihin's scientific publications in international journals 2020-11-05T13:31:33+02:00 Olha Oliinyk olgaoliinik1984@gmail.com <p><em>In the 21st century, we live in the stage of human history when any information is as accessible as possible. The modern scientific world is based on an extensive network of journals. Thanks to them, we have the opportunity to get acquainted with the latest research results. In the 21st century, every reputable journal also has an online version, which makes the dissemination of scientific information almost instantaneous. We are so accustomed to the conveniences of the information age that it is difficult for us to imagine the difficulties that scientists faced a little over 150 years ago. In the second half of the nineteenth century, almost most of the sciences known to mankind were formed. The genesis of science launched the process of forming branch scientific communities and demanded stable ways of communication for productive and effective development of the branch. Scientific journals have become an ideal means of disseminating information, and a scientific article has been transformed from an ordinary letter into a modern form and has taken on an ideal form. Given all the above, it is important to consider the experience of V. Lihin in publishing articles in scientific journals abroad. Valerian Mykolaiovych was the first scientist from Odessa to join a new type of scientific communication. He became the first Russian-speaking member of one of the oldest Mathematical Societies in Europe - the French. The young mathematician conquered with his erudition, attention to detail, thorough approach and comprehensive analysis of research issues. During his life, V. Lihin wrote more than 30 scientific papers, a third of which were presented in scientific journals abroad. These were complete author's translations or articles based on part of the study. Not infrequently, on the pages of magazines, you could see scientific discussions, in which our compatriot also took an active part. In Odessa, the fate of Valerian Mykolaiovych changed quite radically several times: he was a professor and dean of the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of Novorossiysk University; an adviser of the mayor, and later the mayor; became a trustee of the Warsaw Educational District. And in Europe, his authority as a scientist was highly valued. He showed that science has no state borders, that it can develop harmoniously - imitating the results of research from all over the world. V. Lihin broke the tradition of "isolated" science when discoveries in the Russian Empire (and later in the USSR) were made separately from the rest of the world. Scientists, who speak the language of science - speak the language of peace and development. And so, in 2020, the language of medical science has united the world despite its borders, nations and religions.</em></p> 2020-06-05T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 History of science and technology http://www.hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/399 Prerequisites of formation and development of mainline electric locomotives engineering at the Luhansk diesel locomotives engineering plant (1957–2014) 2020-11-05T13:32:02+02:00 Mykola Ruban nikolas.kindle@gmail.com <p><em>In the article an attempt to investigate in a chronological order the historical circumstances of the formation and development of the mainline electric locomotives engineering at the Luhansk diesel locomotives engeneering plant (1957–2014) has been made. The circumstances of the activity of the electric locomotives workshop of the Luhansk plant (1957–1967), within which the production of crew parts and units of the legendary locomotives VL8 and VL10 for Novocherkask and Tbilisi factories have been analyzed. In the late 1980s, due to the absence of a solid convertible currency for the import of traction rolling stock from Czechoslovakia in the wake of the economic crisis of the USSR, the Luhansk plant received orders for the development and production of self-propelled electric locomotives. However, with the proclamation of the Independence of Ukraine, due to the lobbying of the new government, promising projects of Luhansk electric locomotives were rejected, and the Dnipro electric locomotives engineering plant was defined the basic enterprise for the creation of mainline electric locomotives for the Ukrainian railways. Due to the unstable economic situation in the country and the lack of targeted financing, the Dnipro plant was unable to start mass production of a number of types of locomotives, HC&nbsp;«Luhanskteplovoz» together with the Novocherkask plant began production of freight electric locomotives on the technological basis of Russian locomotives. Further development and prospects of serial electric locomotives engineering at the Luhansk plant were interrupted by the aggravation of the military-political situation in the region. However, it is clear that the historical experience of becoming a domestic scientific-production base of the mainline electrical production needs its proper understanding in the context of current tendencies of import of traction rolling stock with an attempt to localize its production in Ukraine.</em></p> 2020-06-05T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 History of science and technology http://www.hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/400 Engineer of the communication lines Mykola Pavlovych Petrov (1836–1920): factors for his scientific views’ formation 2020-11-05T13:32:42+02:00 Volodymyr Yanin volodymyrianin@gmail.com <p><em>The article reviews the factors of the scientific views’ formation of Mykola Pavlovych Petrov – formidable Russian scientist and engineer in relation to his administrative efforts of development of the native scientific and technical community XIX–XX. The special focus was made on the biographical component, especially his study in Petersburg institutions. The crucial impact on the scientific destiny of M. P. Petrov was made by his studying in the Engineer Academy. In that time the intellectual basement for the future activities was formed. As a matter of fact, later M.P. Petrov became the formidable engineer and scientist. M. P. Petrov was the student of the formidable mathematician, academician of the Petersburg Academy of Science Mykhailo Vasylovych Ostrohradskyi (1801–1862). M. P. Petrov gained a lot of useful skills and knowledge from his teacher. Among those the following: high mathematical culture, abstract thinking, knowledge of the theoretical and practical problems in various areas of science, especially the ones that were related to railway transport. Work as the lecturer in the Technological Institute, communication with I. A. Vyshniehradskyi, A. P. Borodin and other scientists and specialists played a role of some kind of push for M. P. Petrov to study applied disciplines, mainly related to the friction of lubricated materials. Among the teachers of M. P. Petrov in the Academy was Herman Yehorovych Pauker (1822–1889). M. P. Petrov always recalled him as the wonderful engineer and teacher, who was the creator of the school for the engineers-teachers. The main goal of the school was the harmonious connection between engineer work and science. In the Academy M. P. Petrov met the lecturer of mechanics of the Institute of the communication paths engineer corps Stanislav Valerianovych Kerbedz. During the studying in the Academy M. P. Petrov was formed as the future scientist and specialist, who had the character which helped him to communicate easily with people. He had humane views and always acted alone and fairly. These features of his character in conjunction with his great mind helped him to achieve all his goals while solving the complicated engineer and administrative tasks. Aspiration to knowledge, original and brave thinking were among the main features of M. P. Petrov`s nature.</em></p> 2020-06-05T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 History of science and technology http://www.hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/401 Academician Pavlova Mariia Vasylivna (1854–1938): life and scientific work 2020-11-05T13:34:03+02:00 Hanna Deforzh deforzhav@gmail.com <p><em>The article is devoted to the study of dedicated contribution of academician Mariia Vasylivna Pavlova (Gortynskaya) in the development of Paleozoology Science. It is noted that her research was carried out in several directions including studying the causes of extinction of animals in the past geological epochs, investigating the remains of fossil elephants, rhinos, tapirs, notartiodactyls and artiodactyls, describing the remains of mammals in Tiraspol gravel. M. V. Pavlova described hipparions and horses, found mainly in the southern regions of Ukraine and the Crimea. By this new material she proved that horses had originated from American protogippus. The idea of a single trunk development of horses both the Old and New World caused objections, especially in America, as in Europe, there were no finds of ancient forms of horse series – anchitheriinae and protogippus. M. V.&nbsp;Pavlova consistently sought them in Eurasia, and in 1903 she discovered the remains of the bones of the limbs of these ancient horses. Analysis of the scientific heritage of Academician M. V. Pavlova, an outstanding national paleoscientist, a specialist in evolutionary theory, an organizer of Paleozoology science and a teacher, makes it possible to understand the processes of development of national biological science. She takes one of the places of honor in the world of paleontological science. Her name is associated with the development of Paleozoology science of late XIX – the first third of the twentieth century and the scientific outlook on the development of various Paleozoology concepts, laws and ideas. It suggests the urgency and necessity of this research. Its relevance is also caused by significant civil and scientific value of a person M. V. Pavlova in Paleozoology science, the lack of special comprehensive study of her life, scientific, organizational and administrative activities in the history of science, the need to create the most objective biography of M. V.&nbsp;Pavlova, the analysis of creative works and the importance of the introduction of solid scientific use of new sources and facts. Scientific activities of Pavlova as the scientific leader and founder of scientific school and her contribution in Paleozoology science has been marginally disclosed yet.</em></p> 2020-06-05T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 History of science and technology http://www.hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/402 Russian women at the beginning of human genetics 2020-11-05T13:34:59+02:00 Roman Fando fando@mail.ru <p><em>This paper reviews the studies on human genetics, carried out by Russian women in the 1920s and 1930s. Its main objective is to determine the contribution of women scientists to the development of different fields of human genetics. Particular attention is given to reconstructing women geneticists’ research work, reviewing the content of their publications, and analysing the theoretical and methodological approaches they employed to tackle different scientific problems. The biographies of the pioneers in Russian “anthropogenetics” (knowledge of human heredity), R. I. Serebrovskaya, G. V. Soboleva, and N. N. Malkova, were restored on the basis of archival sources. The first women geneticists received their higher education at the Higher Women’s Courses, as, in the Russian Empire, it was prohibited for women to study at the universities. These women came into genetics from traditional biological sciences or medicine at the time when human genetics as a discipline began to emerge in Russia in the 1920s. The first works in the field of anthropogenetics, conducted by these women on their own, began to appear in 1923. By the mid ‒ 1920s, women geneticists began to use genealogical and twin methods for studying human heredity extensively. The number of women’s publications peaked in the late 1920s. Studies in the field of population genetics and medical genetics gained popularity and new biochemical and cytological methods of analysis were added to the repertoire of analytical techniques. In the 1930s, with the beginning of attacks on eugenics, studies in human genetics were rapidly wound down to be completely arrested by the 1940s. The results of the studies carried out by the Russian women anthropogeneticists in the 1920s ‒ 1930s included demonstrating hereditary nature of premature graying (R.&nbsp;I.&nbsp;Serebrovskaya), hemorrhagic diathesis and inguinal hernia (N. N. Malkova), deaf-mutism and stutter (G. V. Soboleva); determining the incidence of different genes in the populations; organizing large-scale twin studies to elucidate the role of heredity and environment in the manifestation of psychological traits; and introducing new methods for hereditary disease diagnostics and the effective practices for teaching preschool and school age children.</em></p> 2020-06-05T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 History of science and technology http://www.hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/403 Contribution of Yu. A. Kulakovskyi to the development of antique archeology in the Nestor Chronicler Historical Society 2020-11-05T13:35:36+02:00 Oksana Hrytsiuta grytsyuta2@gmail.com <p><em>In the history of Ukrainian archeology there are many names of outstanding researchers who have devoted their lives to the study of our antiquity. Among them – Yulian Kulakovskyi, a well-known domestic historian and archeologist. For many years of his life he devoted to the scientific and pedagogical activity at the Kyiv University of St. Vladimir, where he had worked at the Faculty of History and Philology. After moving to Kyiv, Yu.&nbsp;A.&nbsp;Kulakovskyi began interesting in the late Ancient Christian archeology of the Crimea. In 1883 Yu. A. Kulakovskyi had joined the Nestor Chronicler Historical Society. Since that time, his life and career have been closely linked to this scientific union. For many years he represented the Nestor Chronicler Society at the All-Russian Archaeological Congresses. In 1905, for his extraordinary merits, Yu. A. Kulakovskyi was admitted to the Honorary Members of the Society, and from 1907 to 1911 performed the duties of its President. Kulakovskyi's presidency was one of the most productive periods of the Society's activity, meetings and public lectures were held during which scientific reports were read. The fascination of Yu.&nbsp;A.&nbsp;Kulakovskyi with archeology began after his move to Kyiv. For many years he was an active participant in archaeological research in the outskirts of Kerch, near Mithridat mountain. The results of these studies have been dedicated to a series of reports published on the pages of “Readings in the Nestor Chronicler Historical Society”. It is possible to consider that he initiated the direction of research in the field of Late Antique archeology of the Crimea in the Society. For the first time in the history of Bosporan archeology, the researcher not only conducted excavations of the most valuable early Christian funeral sites, but he also explored much of the necropolis, discovered unique burial sites, some of them are known for their wall paintings. Thanks to the efforts of the scientist it was possible to solve important questions of the borders of the ancient necropolis, chronology and cultural identity of the ancient population of Crimea. The researches of Yu. A. Kulakovskyi made it possible to begin systematic excavations of the ancient Panticapeus, which allowed to preserve the unique archaeological materials, which later became the subject of careful study of modern scientists. </em></p> 2020-06-05T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 History of science and technology http://www.hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/390 Army Forces and epidemic diseases: A travel through the XIXth century International Sanitary Conferences 2020-11-05T13:36:20+02:00 Enrique Wulff enrique.wulff@icman.csic.es <p>This article involves a critical examination of XIXth century military interventions, as the basic cause of the international contagion. Challenges arising and choices made in a critical reading of the International Sanitary Conferences (ISC) proceedings, reveal case histories and early statistical techniques at use with epidemiological purposes. These episodes in the history of the diseases suggest that relevant military information was circulated among health professionals through the ISCs. Although the evolution of the epidemic process during the latter half of the XIXth century made the Conferences fail to cure the diseases that the Western medicine own expansion engendered. By discussing the ways that prophylactic measures and international interventions were used by medical scientists and diplomats alike, from the detailed records of troop mortality to such ubiquitous terms as "contagion" and "quarantine", the article seriously reflect on what happened when action taken by military forces was a mass phenomenon. As evidenced from the study of the proceedings when comparing different populations, in the pathologies associated with the mass-transport era the rationale of interaction outlined the challenges involved in the train transport of troops. Also, the existence of an environmental risk factor can answer the question on the action taken by military forces as a mass phenomenon with huge impacts on hospitals, harbors and prisons. Materials intended for these international epidemics studies and commissions were prepared by experimented military and civil medical doctors who believed that evidence and common sense proved epidemic diseases capable of being prevented, treated, and controlled by a military approach. This essay demonstrates that Army forces' capability to take control over their host governing apparatus, emphasizes the importance of their aim to follow and accompany the control of the disease in the imperialist competition for land. It grows out of its specific historical context, which due to its origin could become uniform and international, but constituted the principal obstacle on the road to an international health office.</p> 2020-06-05T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 History of science and technology